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Download Pre-Engineering Part-1 Chemistry Notes 2016-17 FBISE Ch#5-State of Matter II (Liquids)

In fifth chapter (Ch#5-States of Matter (Liquids)), the students will learn about diffusion, compression, expansion, motion of molecules, intermolecular forces, and kinetic energy in liquids using kinetic molecular theory, explanation of applications of dipole-dipole forces, hydrogen bonding and London forces explanation of physical properties of liquids such as evaporation, vapour pressure, boiling point, viscosity and surface tension, explanation of the properties of water (high surface tension, high specific heat, low vapour pressure, high heat of vaporisation, high boiling point and anomalous behaviour of water when its density shows maximum at 4 ° C using the concept of hydrogen bonding), comparison of the volatility of different liquids at same temperature based on intermolecular forces, definition of molar heat of fusion, heat of vaporization, molar heat of sublimation, relate energy changes with changes in intermolecular forces, dynamic equilibrium between different physical states of matter, explanation of the formation of liquid crystals, differentiate liquid crystals from pure liquids and crystalline solids, state the uses of liquid crystals (as temperature sensors, in thermometers, skin thermography, electrical circuits and devices, chromatographic separations, and as display screens).