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Download F.Sc Premedical Biology Notes XI First Year FBISE – Ch#2 Biological Molecules (Exercise)

Dear Students, Respectable Teachers / Parents,

In this post I am going to upload Notes on Biology F.Sc – I Premedical Group, 2nd Chapter (Ch#2 Biological Molecules). In this chapter you will be introduced with Biochemistry and will learn the definition of biochemistry, protoplasm and biological molecules, differentiate between micro and macro-molecules (on the basis of molecular mass), compare atom and molecules, organic and inorganic molecules, covalent, ionic bond and hydrogen bond, Importance of Carbon, explanation of  the properties of carbon, differentiate between condensation and hydrolysis, explanation of chemical composition of the protoplasm, Importance of Water, explanation of the properties of water (polarity, hydrogen bonding, specific heat, heat of vaporization, cohesion, hydrophobic nature, ionization, low density of ice, amphoteric nature), Carbohydrates, definition of carbohydrates, properties of monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides with examples, illustration of the formation and breakage of distinguished disaccharides i.e. maltose, sucrose and lactose, comparison of the structure and function of starch, cellulose, glycogen and chitin, Lipids, definition of lipids, properties of acylglycerol, phospholipids, terpenoids and waxes illustration of the molecular structure of acylglycerol, (triglycerides), phospholipids, steroids, caretenoids and terpenes, the roles of steroids and prostaglandins in living organisms, Proteins, definition of proteins and amino acids, differentiate between essential and non-essential amino acids, acidic and basic amino acids, polar and non-polar amino acids, explanation of amphoteric property of aminoacids, differentiate between di-peptides and poly-peptides, various levels of organization of proteins (primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary), definition of fibrous and globular proteins, significance of sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain through sickle cell anaemia, functions of proteins in the body, Nucleic Acids, definition of nucleic acid and describe the structure of DNA, differentiate between nucleotide and nucleoside, classify nucleotides according to their sugar molecules and nitrogen bases, differentiate between mononucleotide (ATP) and di-nucleotide, define genetic code, differentiate between DNA and RNA, describe various types of RNA molecules with reference to protein synthesis, Conjugated Molecules, definition of conjugated molecules, describe the role of glycolipids, glycoproteins, lipoproteins and nucleoproteins.