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Ch#6 “The Kingdom Prokaryotae (Monera) Bacteria” F.Sc First Year Biology Notes New Course

Dear Students,

“The Kingdom Prokaryotae (Monera) Bacteria” is the 6th Chapter in the new course of Biology for intermediate premedical students. In this chapter the students will learn the characteristic features of Kingdom Prokaryotae, state characteristic features of archaebacteria (thermophilic, acidophilic, hallophilic), describe the discovery, occurrence and habitat of bacteria, describe morphological diversity (shapes) of bacteria, differentiate between gram positive and gram negative bacteria, explain structure of bacteria (cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm, mesosome, chromatin, flagella and capsule), describe autotrophic, heterotrophic, symbiotic and parasitic bacteria, differentiate between the chlorophyll present in bacteria and plant, describe facultative and obligatory aerobes, micro-aerobes, facultative and obligatory anaerobes, describe the methods of locomotion in bacteria (chemotaxis, magnetotaxis), explain different phases of growth in bacteria, describe different modes of reproduction in bacteria (binary fission, endospore formation and genetic recombination; conjugation, transduction and transformation), describe the role of beneficial bacteria in terms of medicine, agriculture, industry, symbiosis, research and harmful bacteria (pathogens, food spoiling), describe different physical and chemical methods to control bacteria, describe immunization and vaccination, discuss uses and misuses of antibiotics, list general characteristics of cyanobacteria, describe the habitat, structure, nutrition and reproduction in nostoc and describe the importance of cyanobacteria in terms of nitrogen fixation.