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Ch#12 “Nutrition” 11th Class Biology Notes New Course PDF FBISE 2016-17

Dear Students,

“Nutrition” is the 12th Chapter in the new course of Biology for intermediate premedical students. In this chapter the students will learn about the concept of nutrition and nutrients: use of nutrients for energy and for carbon skeleton, Autotrophic and heterotrophic nutritions, Phototrophic and chemotrophic nutrition, Refer to details of photosynthesis in Section IV Chapter –11 and Chemosynthesis in Chapter -6. Role of some important mineral (N, P, K, Mg) and their deficiency symptoms, Review of parasitic and saprophytic nutrition. Carnivorous plants, Introduction of modes of acquiring food in animals: saprotrophs, detritivores, predators, herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, filter feeders, fluid feeders, Microphagous and macrophagous feeders, Typical mode of animal nutrition, Definition need and types of digestion Intracellular and extra cellular digestion. Sac like and tubular digestive system, Ingestion, mechanical breakdown, chemical breakdown, absorption, assimilation and egestion, Nutrition in Amoeba, Hydra, Planaria and cockroach, Structure of different parts of human alimentary canal. Various digestive processes occurring in digestive tract, Oral cavity: mechanical break down of food, adaptation of different types of teeth to different diets, plaque and its effects, chemical breakdown of food (starch)  role of components of saliva secretion of saliva, Pharynx and swallowing, Oesophagus: pharynx to stomach, peristalsis and antiperistalsis, Stomach structure and functions, protein digestion, mechanism of secretion of gastric juice, storage of food and discontinuous feeding, Small intestine: Digestion and absorption, structure and function of villi, role of liver and pancreas in digestion, mechanism of secretion pancreatic juice, Large intestine: Absorption of water and other functions. Diarrhoea, Dysentery and Constipation, Anus and Egestion, Dyspepsia, Ulcer, food poisoning; malnutrition (over and under nutrition) Bulimia nervosa, overweight and obesity, Anorexia nervosa, Piles and Examples of some endoparasites and ectoparasites of man.