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Ch#11 “Bioenergetics” 11th Class Premedical Notes Biology New Course FBISE 2016-17

Dear Students,

“Bioenergetics” is the 11th Chapter in the new course of Biology for intermediate premedical students. In this chapter the students will learn the need for energy in living organisms, Role of ATP as energy currency and its role in metabolism, Photosynthesis and Respiration as main energy processing processes, Photosynthesis as energy trapping/energy converting process, Reactants and products of photosynthesis, Role of Chlorophyll and other pigments, light, carbon dioxide and water in photosynthesis, Light dependent reactions: photosphorylation and reduction of NADP, Light independent reactions: Calvin Benson cycle – fixation and Cellular Respiration, reduction of CO2, Cellular respiration as energy releasing process, oxidative phosphorylation, Aerobic and anaerobic respiration, comparison of two with reference to energy yield and products. Fermentation and its economic importance, Glycolysis, Formation of Acetyl Co A, Krebs cycle, Respiratory electron transport chain, role of O2 as hydrogen acceptor, The sun as ultimate source of energy, Unidirectional flow of energy and its subsequent losses, Trophics levels, Pyramid of energy, The efficiency of energy flow and its significance: advantages of short food chains and their application in solving food problems in relation to man.