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Ch#10 “The Kingdom Animalia” First Year Premedical Notes New Course FBISE – 2016-17

Dear Students,

“The Kingdom Animalia” is the 10th Chapter in the new course of Biology for intermediate premedical students. In this chapter the students will learn an outline of classification of Animal Kingdom into major phyla, Development of complexity: unicellular to multicellular, Radial and bilateral symmetry, Diploblasic and Triploblastic organization, Acoelomates and Coelomates,Protostomes and Deuterostomes. Basic characteristics of sponges, exhibiting simplest multicellular organization, origin, importance, General characteristics, origin of diploblastic organization, Radial symmentry, poloymorphism, alternation of generations, coral reefs, General characters, triploblastic acoelomate organization, bilateral symmetry, Adaptations for parasitic mode of life. Importance tapeworm infestation and disinfestations, General characters, Importance – Parasitc diseases, General characters, Segmentation and its advantages, coelom and its advantages, Major groups polychaetes, oligochaetes and leeches, Importance, General characters,Skeleton, appendages and body parts. A successful group, Diversity: major groups – Crustaceans, insects, arachnids, myriapods, Economic importance, General characters, Broad classification, Bivalve, Gastropods, Cephalopods, Economic importance, General characters. Affinites, General Characteristics and classifications, General characteristics and various groups. Adaptations for aquatic life, Origin, General characteristics, Trends for land habitat. Amphibians as unsuccessful land vertebrates, General characteristics and past history. Reptiles as successful land vertebrates, General characteristics and adaptations for aerial mode of life. Flightless birds and flying birds. Evolutionary origin, General characteristics and diversity: Prototheria, Metatheria and Eutheria and Evolutionary origin.