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Ch#14 “Transport” Biology Notes New Course F.Sc 1 FBISE 2016-17

Dear Students,

“Transport” is the 14th Chapter in the new course of Biology for intermediate premedical students. In this chapter the students will learn about the need for transported of materials, Materials to be transported in plants, Process involved in the uptake: diffusion, Osmosis, Facilitated  Diffusion. Active Transport, Imbibition, Water status in plants: Water Potential, Osmotic Potential and Pressure, Potential, Plasmolysis and Deplasmolysis, Movement of water and minerals from the soil to the xylem by way of apoplast and symplast and through vacuoles, Path of movement of water and salts, features of xylem in relation to its role in transport, Mechanism of Ascent of sap: Root pressure, guttation, Transpiration pull, (Cohesion Tension Theory), TACT, Forces, Definition, types and mechanism of transpiration. Stomatal control of transpiration and opening and closing of stomata, Factors affecting rate of transpiration, Role of transpiration as a necessary evil, Path of movement of organic solutes and features of phloem in relation to their transport. Pressure flow Mechanism and its limitation, General characteristics: Transport without special circulatory system-Hydra and Planaria: and Transport by special circulatory systems, General characteristics of a circulatory system, Open circulatory system and closed circulatory system explained by transport in cockroach and earthworm, Single circuit plan as in fish. Double circuit plan: Pulmonary and systematic circulation  as in birds and mammals, Brief reference to evolution of number of heart chambers in fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals, Composition of blood and functions of its components, Leukemia. Thalassaemia, Structure of human heart, Cardiac cycle, heartbeat, pacemaker, S-A node and A-V node, Artificial pacemaker. Blue babies, Arteries. Capillaries, veins and their relationship, exchange of materials in capillary beds by filtration, osmosis and diffusion, Blood Pressure and Blood Flow, Lymph vessels, lymph, lymph nodes, Lymphatic system as a drainage system. Some other function of lymphatic system. Edema, Atherosclerosis – its causes and effects. Hypertension, thrombus formation coronay thrombosis, myocardial infraction – heart attack, stroke and their prevention hemorrhage, Immunity and its types.

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